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  • February 22, 2024 5:31 pm local time

Overview

Tanzania History

Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika) became independent from Britain in 1961. Tanganyika and Zanzibar united on 26th April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. The first president of Tanzania was Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere followed by;

  • Ali Hassan Mwinyi - (1985-1995)
  • Benjamin William Mkapa - (1995-2005)
  • Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete - (2005-2015)
  • John Pombe Joseph Magufuli - (2015-2021)
  • Samia Suluhu Hassan - (2021-To Date)

The United Republic of Tanzania is located in the eastern part of Africa, and it shares borders with many countries including Kenya, Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to the west, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south and the Indian Ocean to the east. The Capital City is Dodoma and Dar es Salaam is a major commercial city.

Zanzibar is a part of the United Republic of Tanzania and consists of two main islands Unguja and Pemba also a number of small islands. The Islands are located 40 km off the mainland coast of East Africa in the Indian Ocean.

Tanzania is well known for the majestic spice Islands of Zanzibar, the ultimate paradise on the Indian Ocean, Mount Kilimanjaro which is the highest mountain in Africa with a snow cap despite being very close to the Equator.

  • The Olduvai Gorge – the Cradle of Mankind
  • The Ngorongoro Crater – the 7th natural wonder of the World
  • The Serengeti National Park – is world-renowned for the largest concentration of wildlife and the spectacular wildebeest migration ( there is nothing like it on this planet)
  • The Selous Game Reserve – is the largest game reserve in Africa
  • Lake Tanganyika – is the deepest lake in Africa
  • Lake Victoria - is the largest lake in Africa

All these endowments offer opportunities for leisure and investment in hotels, camps, water sports, hunting, and tour operation.

Location

Tanzania is located in eastern Africa between longitude 29 - 41 East. Latitude 1 - 12 South. Tanzania has a total area of 947,300 sq. km of land including 61,000 sq. km of inland water. The total surface area of Zanzibar is 2,654 sq. km Unguja, the larger of the two islands has an area of 1,666 sq. km, while Pemba has an area of 988 sq. km.

Demography

The population has grown from 12,313,469 people in the first post Independence census in 1967 to 61.741,120 as of the estimated population in 2012-2022 (https://sensa.nbs.go.tz/). More than 80% of the population is in rural areas. The Tanzania population consists of more than 120 tribes. The population also includes people of Arab, Indian, and Pakistan origin, and small European and Asian communities. Local people are native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 120 tribes) and the remaining 1% consists of Asians, Europeans, and Arabs

Tanzania's Religion, Economy, And Politics

The religious diversity in Tanzania is split into Christianity at 61.4% of the population, Muslim at 35.2%, folk religion at 1.8%, other at 0.2%, and unaffiliated at 1.4%.

While much of the population comes from the mainland, there is one group known as the Shirazis who trace their origins to Zanzibar's early Persian settlers. About 1% of the population on the mainland and Zanzibar are non-Africans. The Asian community in Tanzania, which includes Sunni Muslims, Parsis, Goans, and others, has dropped by nearly 50% in the last ten years to just 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. It's estimated that about 90,000 Arabs and Europeans also reside in the country.

While each ethnic group has its own language, Tanzania's official language is Kiswahili, which is an Arabic-influenced Bantu language, as well as English.

Climate

Tanzania has a tropical type of climate and is divided into four main climatic zones notably:

  • The hot humid coastal plain
  • The semi-arid zone of the central plateau
  • The high-moist lake regions
  • The temperate highland areas

In the highlands, temperatures range between 10ºc and 20ºc during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures usually not falling lower than 20ºc. The hottest period spreads between November and February (25ºc - 31ºc) whereas the coldest period is often between May and August (15ºc - 20ºc). The climate of the islands of Zanzibar is tropical and humid. The average maximum temperature is about 30ºC recorded during the hot season November to March, while the average minimum temperature is 21ºC, recorded during the cool season of June to October. The humidity rate is high ranging from 50's to 80's and slightly higher in Pemba than in Unguja.

Health And Vaccination

Anti-malaria medication is recommended when travelling within East Africa including Zanzibar. A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers above one year of age.

Getting To Tanzania

The main entry point for flights into Tanzania is Julius Nyerere International Airport, Abeid Amani Karume International Airport, and Kilimanjaro International Airport. There are local flights from Tanzania mainland to Zanzibar.

Communication

  • Fixed, Mobile, and Internet services Operator - Tanzania has seven mobile network Operators offering 2G, 3G, and 4G services
  • International Dialling Code - (+255)
  • Visa - Valid passport and visa are required with an exception for some countries. More information on VISA including the application can be accessed at (https://eservices.immigration.go.tz/)
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